Coupling in Java

Coupling in Java

In this tutorial, we are going to discuss coupling in Java. Coupling is also one of the feature of OOPs. The degree of dependency between the components is called coupling.

In Java programming, coupling refers to the degree of interdependence between different modules or classes within a software system. It measures how closely connected or dependent two classes are on each other. Low coupling is generally desirable because it leads to code that is more modular, flexible, and easier to maintain.

Coupling in Java

These components are tightly coupled with each other. Without affecting any component, we can’t modify any component. This type of programming is not recommended. Whenever we are developing the components compulsory, we should maintain very less dependency between the components, i.e. we have to maintain loosely coupling.

The main advantages of loosely coupling are:

  1. It improves maintainability.
  2. It makes enhancements easy.
  3. It produces reusability.

There are different types of coupling in Java:

1. Loose Coupling

When two classes, modules, or components have low dependencies on each other, it is called loose coupling in Java. Loose coupling in Java means that the classes are independent of each other. 

The loose coupling in Java has the edge over tight coupling as it reduces code maintenance and efforts. A change in one class does not require changes in the other class, and two classes can work independently.

2. Tight Coupling

When two classes are highly dependent on each other, it is called tight coupling. It occurs when a class takes too many responsibilities or where a change in one class requires changes in the other class.

3. Content Coupling

This occurs when one class accesses or modifies the internal data (attributes) of another class directly. It’s considered a tight form of coupling and should generally be avoided in favor of encapsulation.

4. Common Coupling

Common coupling exists when multiple classes share the same global data. Changes to this data can affect multiple classes, leading to a high degree of interdependence.

5. Control Coupling

Control coupling occurs when one class passes control information (such as flags or parameters) to another class, instructing it on what to do. This form of coupling can be reduced by designing classes to be more self-contained and autonomous.

6. Stamp Coupling

This happens when two classes share complex data structures, such as arrays or objects. If changes are made to these data structures, it can affect the behavior of both classes.

To reduce coupling and improve the design of a Java application, it’s important to adhere to principles like SOLID, favor composition over inheritance, and use design patterns that promote loose coupling, such as Observer, Strategy, and Dependency Injection. Additionally, practicing good modular design and encapsulation can help minimize the degree of coupling between classes.

That’s all about Coupling in Java. If you have any queries or feedback, please write us email at Enjoy learning, Enjoy Java.!

Coupling in Java
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