JDBC Overview

JDBC Overview
  • JDBC is a Technology, which can be used to communicate with Database from Java Application.
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  • JDBC is the Part of Java Standard Edition (J2SE|JSE)
  • JDBC is a Specification defined by Java Vendor (Sun Micro Systems) and implemented by Database Vendors.
  • Database Vendor provided Implementation is called “Driver Software”.
JDBC Features
  • JDBC API is Standard API. We can communicate with any Database without rewriting our Application i.e. it is Database Independent API.
  • JDBC Drivers are developed in Java and hence JDBC Concept is applicable for any Platform. i.e. JDBC Is Platform Independent Technology.
  • By using JDBC API, we can perform basic CRUD Operations very easily.
C ➔ Create (Insert)
R ➔ Retrieve (Select)
U ➔ Update (Update)
D ➔ Delete (Delete)
  • We can also perform Complex Operations (like Inner Joins, Outer Joins, calling Stored Procedures etc) very easily by using JDBC API.
  • JDBC API supported by Large Number of Vendors and they developed multiple Products based on JDBC API. List of supported Vendors we can check in the link


JDBC Versions
  • JDBC 3.0 is Part J2SE 1.4
  • No Update in Java SE 5.0
  • JDBC 4.0 is Part Java SE 6.0
  • JDBC 4.1 is Part Java SE 7.0
  • JDBC 4.2 is Part Java SE 8.0
Evolution of JDBC
  • If we want to communicate with Database by using C OR C++, compulsory we have to use database specific Libraries in our Application directly.
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  • In the above Diagram C OR C++ Application uses Oracle specific Libraries directly.
  • The Problem in this Approach is, if we want to migrate Database to another Database then we have to rewrite Total Application once again by using new Database specific Libraries.
  • The Application will become Database Dependent and creates Maintenance Problems.
  • To overcome this Problem, Microsoft People introduced “ODBC” Concept in 1992. It is Database Independent API.
  • With ODBC API, Application can communicate with any Database just by selecting corresponding ODBC Driver.
  • We are not required to use any Database specific Libraries in our Application. Hence our Application will become Database Independent.
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Limitations of ODBC
  • ODBC Concept will work only for Windows Machines. It is Platform Dependent Technology.
  • ODBC Drivers are implemented in C Language. If we use ODBC for Java Applications, then Performance will be down because of internal conversions from Java to C and C to Java.

Because of above Reasons, ODBC Concept is not suitable for Java Applications.


  • For Java Applications, SUN People introduced JDBC Concept.
  • JDBC Concept Applicable for any Platform. It is Platform Independent Technology.
  • JDBC Drivers are implemented in Java. If we use JDBC for Java Applications, then internal Conversions are not required and hence there is no Effect on Performance.
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  • ODBC Concept is applicable for any Database and for any Language, but only for Windows Platform.
  • JDBC Concept is Applicable for any Platform and for any Database, but only for Java Language.
Differences Between JDBC and ODBC
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JDBC Overview
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