System Design Example

System Design Example

In this tutorial, we are going to discuss about the System Design Example. Let’s understand how a complex application like Instagram can utilize the API Gateway pattern.

Instagram is a fantastic example to explain the API Gateway Pattern because it’s a complex application with millions of users and a myriad of features. Imagine Instagram as a bustling city with various services like user management, photo processing, notifications, etc. The API Gateway is like the main entrance to this city, directing traffic and making sure everything runs smoothly.

Designing a scalable and efficient Instagram-like system involves numerous components working together to handle a variety of functionalities, from user authentication to photo uploads, feeds, comments, likes, and more. Using the API Gateway pattern can help manage these components effectively. Below is a high-level system design of Instagram with the API Gateway pattern.

System Design
Instagram System Design with API Gateway Pattern

1. API Gateway

  • This is the central point through which all client requests (from mobile apps, web browsers, etc.) pass.
  • Responsibilities:
    • Routing: Directing user requests to the appropriate microservice.
    • Aggregation: Combining data from multiple services to send a consolidated response to the client.
    • Authentication & Authorization: Ensuring that users are who they say they are and that they have permission to access requested resources.
    • Rate Limiting: Preventing abuse by limiting how many requests a user can make in a certain timeframe.
    • Load Balancing: Distributing incoming requests across multiple instances of a service to ensure no single instance is overwhelmed.
    • Logging and Monitoring: Keeping track of what’s happening in the system for troubleshooting and performance monitoring.

2. Microservices in Instagram

  • User Management Service: Handles user profiles, relationships (followers/following), and account settings.
  • Photo Upload and Processing Service: Manages the uploading of photos, applies filters, and resizes images for different devices.
  • Feed Service: Generates and serves the user’s feed, showing photos from people they follow.
  • Notification Service: Sends notifications for new followers, likes, comments, etc.
  • Search Service: Handles queries for user profiles, hashtags, and locations.
  • Comment Service: Manages comments on photos.
How the API Gateway Pattern is Applied

Scenario: Uploading a Photo

  • Step 1: The user uploads a photo via the Instagram app.
  • Step 2: The request hits the API Gateway.
  • Step 3: The API Gateway authenticates the user and checks if they are authorized to upload photos.
  • Step 4: Once authenticated, the API Gateway routes the request to the Photo Upload and Processing Service.
  • Step 5: The Photo Service processes the image, and once done, sends a response back to the API Gateway.
  • Step 6: The API Gateway then sends a confirmation back to the user’s app.

Scenario: Viewing the Feed

  • Step 1: The user opens their Instagram app to view their feed.
  • Step 2: The request hits the API Gateway.
  • Step 3: The API Gateway authenticates the user.
  • Step 4: The API Gateway then makes parallel requests to:
    • Feed Service: To get the list of recent photos from people the user follows.
    • Notification Service: To fetch any new notifications.
  • Step 5: The API Gateway aggregates the responses from these services.
  • Step 6: The API Gateway sends a consolidated response back to the user’s app, showing the feed and notifications.

By using the API Gateway Pattern, Instagram ensures that there’s a consistent, efficient, and secure way to handle all the interactions required to deliver a seamless experience to its millions of users. It also makes it easier to manage and scale the system as it grows.

The API Gateway pattern provides a centralized entry point for managing client requests and simplifies the interaction between clients and backend microservices. In the case of an Instagram-like system, the API Gateway routes requests to specific services like User, Media, Feed, Comment, Like, Notification, and Search services. By using service discovery with Eureka, we ensure that the services can find and communicate with each other efficiently, which is crucial for the scalability and resilience of the system.

That’s all about the API Gateway Pattern System Design Example. If you have any queries or feedback, please write us email at Enjoy learning, Enjoy Micro services..!!

System Design Example
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